TNM classification of bladder cancer
T – rT – primary tumor (t – multiplicity of lesion) Tx – insufficient data to evaluate the primary tumor; TO – primary tumor not determined; Ta – non-invasive papillary carcinoma Tis – cancer in situ (flat tumor) T1 – the tumor spreads to the subepithelial connective tissue T2 – tumor invades muscle layer T2a – tumor invasion superficial muscle layer (inner half) T2 – tumor invades deep muscle layer (male half) TK – tumor invades paravezikalnuyu fiber MAL – micros opicheski TZ – macroscopically T4 – Tumor invades any of the following organs: prostate, uterus, vagina wall pelvis, abdominal wall T4a – tumor invasion of the prostate, uterus, vagina T4 – tumor invasion wall pelvic or abdominal N – pN – regionarnye lymph nodes Nx – insufficient data to assess the status of regional lymph nodes N0 – no signs of regional lymph nodes metastases N1 – metastases in one regional lymph node no more than 2 cm N2 – metastases in more than one regional lymph node more than 2 cm, but not more than 5 cm or multiple metastases to the lymph nodes, none of which more than 5 cm N3 – metastases more than 5 cm M – distant metastases Mx – insufficient data to determine distant metastases of MO – there are no signs of distant metastases Ml – there are distant metastases G – histopathological gradation Gx – the degree of differentiation cannot be estimated G1 – highly differentiated tumor G2 – moderately differentiated tumor G3-4 – low differentiated or undifferentiated induced tumor Grouping in stages Stage 0a – TaNOMO Stage Ois – TisNOMO Stage 1 -T1N0M0 Stage II – T2a-bN0M0 Stage III – TZa-bNO MO, T4aN0M0 Stage IV- T4bN0M0, any TN3, N1, N2.
Bladder Cancer Clinic
A characteristic clinical sign of bladder cancer, including in the initial stages, is intermittent hematuria, which can be total, terminal (with localization of the tumor in the neck of the bladder). Hematuria can be significant, leading to severe anemia and sometimes requiring emergency surgical care. Dysuria is caused by both the localization and growth of the tumor, and the addition of infection. Dysuric phenomena in the form of frequent painful urination, imperative urges in the absence of a concomitant inflammatory process are characteristic of cancer in situ. The pain is initially associated with the act of urination, as the tumor grows, the intensity of pain in the perineum and above the womb increases, compression of the ureters and the development of chronic renal failure, pyelonephritis are possible.