Reducing the risk of disease
In case of positive results to reduce the risk of the disease, as a preventive measure, the possibility of bilateral mastectomy and / or salpingoectomy is provided. For this category of women it is especially difficult to make a choice between such preventive measures and the possibility of early diagnosis of the disease. This is due to the questionable effectiveness of screening procedures and a rather complex system of arguments in favor of conducting a preventive operation.
Recently, The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the UK issued a guideline that outlines the main selection criteria for women at increased risk of developing family cancer, and sets out principles for further clinical observation. Depending on the degree of risk, several categories of clinical examinations are provided for these women: the first, second and third. Data on the effect of oral contraceptive use on breast cancer are controversial. Nevertheless, among women who use contraceptives, cancer develops no more often than among those who do not use them.
In large-scale studies conducted in the USA (Women s Health Initiative, WHI), it was shown that after 5.2 years of estrogen / progestin use in women, there is an additional risk of breast cancer, which is 26%. Along with this increases the risk of stroke and cardiac diseases. Observations on the victims of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima have shown an increase in the incidence of breast cancer among them. Demographic differences in incidence, rather, are more related to diet, cultural and geographical differences than anthropological characteristics. So, the daughters and granddaughters of women who moved to the United States from Japan and Hawaii, breast cancer develops with the same frequency as American women. According to the research of an international group of epidemiologists, the consumption of large amounts of fat is unlikely to affect the development of the disease.