At the 2nd stage, the severity of the symptoms increases.
- In addition to bleeding, patients are recorded:
- pain in the perineum and in the lower abdomen;
- false desires for defecation (tenesmus);
- digestive disorders – diarrhea, constipation;
- weakness and fatigue; weight loss.
The tumor itself grows in sizes up to 5 cm and sprouts into the intestine layers. In some cases, the tumor can take up more than half of the ring circle of the rectum. Metastases are absent or are single.
In 2 stages as well as in the first, it is advisable to perform surgical treatment – to remove the tumor together with the part of the intestine or to completely remove the rectal part of the intestine together with the sphincter. The type of operation depends on the localization of the malignant focus. If it is located closer than 7-10 cm to the anus, it will be difficult to maintain continuity of the intestine: the doctors make a colostomy – an artificial outlet, to which the calorimeter is attached. Lymphadenectomy is mandatory – removal of the nearest lymph nodes, because single cancer cells probably enter the system of lymphatic fluid flow. Survival of patients after surgery for stage 2 cancer is about 75% – this is the number of patients overcomes the threshold at 5 years. Patients after surgery are prescribed mandatory radiation and chemotherapy. A diet is also prescribed, which patients should be observed for life.