The third stage is characterized by an increase in size of more than 5 cm: the tumor usually takes more than a semicircle of the rectum. There is infiltration (penetration) of the tumor process into the muscular layer of the rectum and neighboring tissues.
Bowel cancer of the rectal department at the 3rd stage gives metastases to lymphatic regional nodes (the number of metastases can reach 4 or more).
The third stage usually causes obvious symptoms – bleeding, severe pain in the anus, which increase after defecation or may be present permanently. Patients may develop anemia due to constant loss of blood.
Anemia is accompanied
- by: severe weakness;
- pallor of the skin;
Treatment is appointed by the doctor on the basis of the clinical picture. In many cases, a surgical operation is performed, although the presence of metastases reduces the chances of recovery to 50%. After removal of the rectum (usually in 3 stages it is necessary to do operations with violation of the continuity of the digestive tract), course adjuvant chemotherapy is conducted.
The life expectancy of patients depends on the literacy of the treatment regimen: the correct combinations of drugs are important. The prognosis worsens depending on the number of metastatic foci in the body.