Intestinal cancer at an early stage
Bowel cancer is a malignant lesion of the mucosa of the small and large intestine. Most of these tumors are preceded by polyposis overgrowth of the surface layer of the gut. Malignant neoplasms can cause intestinal obstruction or internal bleeding in cancer . In the later stages of the disease, the oncological process extends beyond the digestive system.But in the case of early diagnosis, when the lesion is determined within the intestine, postoperative survival is 90%. The disease affects men and women equally.
Bowel cancer - causes
A reliable cause of development of oncology of the intestine is not established. Doctors-oncologists distinguish between the following risk factors:
- Age. Cancer diseases most often occur in the elderly.
- Chronic inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Low-quality food, which consists of consuming large amounts of fat and alcohol.
- Genetic predisposition. The chances of developing bowel cancer increase in patients whose direct relatives had oncological diseases.
Symptoms of intestinal cancer at an early stage
There are no specific manifestations of malignant damage in the early stages of development. Signs of an early malignant process include:
- chronic disorders of the digestive system in the form of alternating periods of constipation and diarrhea;
- feelings of overcrowding in the lower abdomen, which eventually turn into pain syndrome;
- a decrease in appetite and aversion to certain types of food;
- often in patients observed fecal matter with a small amount of blood;
- high fever ;
- anemic conditions (dizziness, fatigue and chronic fatigue).
Intestinal cancer at an early stage - diagnosis
Intestinal cancer at an early stage
Oncological disease of the gastrointestinal tract, as a rule, slowly develops, which significantly increases the possibility of early detection of a cancerous tumor. To diagnose intestinal cancer at an early stage, the patient undergoes the following diagnostic manipulations:
Allows to conduct a preliminary assessment of the localization and condition of malignant neoplasm.
Laboratory analysis of feces for the presence of blood cells.
If there is a suspicion of collateral cancer, the patient is given a rectal finger examination.
This is a technique of contrast radiology, in which a special luminescent substance is introduced into the large intestine. On a series of X-ray images, one can clearly identify the presence of malignant neoplasm and the character of damage to the intestinal wall.
It consists in a visual examination of the mucous membrane of the internal surface of the intestinal canal with the help of an endoscope. The procedure consists of introducing a probe into the patient's gastrointestinal tract, which transmits the image to the computer screen. Such equipment allows identifying not only cancers, but also benign lesions in the form of polyps, ulcers and precancerous conditions. During the colonoscopy, a convenient opportunity to take biological material for a biopsy is provided.
This is a highly specialized method of researching the rectum. This event involves the introduction of a special tube that has the necessary backlighting. To this device, an air injection device is connected at the beginning of the test, which as a result smoothes the internal surface of the rectum. Finally, an optical system is connected to the device, which displays all the information on the screen. Rectoromanoscopy determines, in case of suspicion of oncology, a biopsy sampling.
- Computer and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
The examination of the intestine is also carried out using X-ray radiation. Diagnostic results are processed digitally and ultimately the doctor receives a series of X-rays, which tracks the prevalence of the tumor and the structural elements of the malignant neoplasm.
Biopsy is the histological and cytological analysis of cancer tissues. This procedure involves two subsequent steps: the collection of biological material and its laboratory investigation.
Treatment of intestinal cancer at an early stage
The main method of treatment of malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal system is a surgical operation to remove pathological tissues. Operative intervention includes excision of the oncologic focus, a small part of nearby healthy tissues and regional lymph nodes.
Additional methods of therapy are:
- Radiation therapy, which by means of highly active radiological rays destroys cancer cells. This activity, basically, involves the over-operative preparation of the patient, which consists in stabilizing the cancer process.
- Chemotherapy is a course of cytotoxic drugs that are prescribed after surgery to prevent possible recurrences of cancer.
Bowel cancer 4 stage
The list of the most common diseases in the field of oncology intestinal cancer ranks third. More often the problem is revealed already at the last stage. At this point, standard therapy becomes virtually impotent.
Bowel cancer (stage 4 is the last) is a deadly disease. Only his timely diagnosis can increase the chances of recovery.
What is the danger of the last stage of intestinal oncology?
The main danger of the disease at its last stage is the inevitable death. In addition, the 4th grade of intestinal cancer is accompanied by the spread of metastases to healthy organs, the subsequent violation of their correct functionality.
The tumor is capable of releasing toxic substances that poison the body.
Early signs of bowel cancer 4 stages
The initial symptoms of bowel cancer are the same as those of another cancer:
- rapid weight loss;
- elevated to 37 degrees temperature;
- loss of efficiency;
- general weakness;
- decrease or total absence of appetite;
- distortion of the taste buds.
At the same time, for the last stage some specific features are characteristic:
- the appearance of mucous, bloody, purulent or other discharge during the act of defecation;
- sensation of a foreign object in the rectum;
- change in the shape and consistency of stool;
- long constipation, which alternate with diarrhea (if the upper parts of the rectum are affected);
- painful sensations in the area of the perineum, waist, sacrum.
It is important to know : How to recognize the intestinal tumor?
Late symptoms of bowel cancer 4 stages
4 degree of bowel cancer is accompanied by the appearance of additional unpleasant symptoms:
- severe pain in the abdomen;
- women may experience the appearance of feces during urination or from the external genitalia, which leads to the development of cystitis and other inflammatory diseases;
- excretions of urine during the act of defecation, in cases where the neoplasm has grown into the walls of the bladder;
- pain in the area of those organs that have metastasized;
- bloating, noticeable protrusion of the affected part of the tumor.
Depending on what additional organs were affected by metastases, there are symptoms such as icterus of the skin, difficulty breathing, headaches and so on.
What tests and examinations are needed?
If there is a suspicion of the presence of the disease, a number of examinations are carried out, the main ones of which are:
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity organs.
- Analysis of feces to detect hidden blood in it.
- Colonoscopy - examination helps to establish the size of the tumor, its exact location.
- Recto-manoscopy - is used to examine the area of the rectum and sigmoid colon, the area of the anus.
- Blood tests (biochemical and general).Helps evaluate the performance of the liver and kidneys.
- Chest X-ray.
- CT scan.
Treatment of bowel cancer 4 stages
4 degree of oncology practically does not give in to treatment, therefore all actions of doctors are directed only on improvement of state of health of the patient. In the presence of the last stage, surgical intervention is not carried out, since the tumor by this time reached significant size and began to give metastases.
The most effective is the combination of radiation and chemotherapy. During these procedures, there is an effect of active drugs that slow the progression of the disease.Such treatment should be carried out individually and in certain courses, so that the organism can restore itself.
The main goals of chemotherapy are:
- slowing growth of neoplasms;
- destruction of cancer cells;
- elimination of metastases;
- reduction in tumor size .
It is important to take into account that for a weakened body disease, chemotherapy can be a real stress. Therefore, it often becomes the cause of various side effects, including stool disorders, vomiting, nausea, rashes on the skin and ulcers in the oral cavity, numbness of the extremities.
It should also be understood that during the last degree of the disease, chemotherapy can not guarantee complete recovery, since the internal organs have long been deeply affected.
Drugs and folk remedies
Avoid further growth of the tumor can be with the help of medications such as "Capecitabine", "Irinotecan." Most often, a combination of three drugs is prescribed: "5-fluorouracil", "Oxaliplatinum" and "Leukoverin."
In combination with standard therapy, folk methods of treatment can be used. Usually they imply the use of poisonous plants: mushroom, hemlock , celandine , cocklebur, ayr, burdock root, yarrow herb, snake mountaineer. Depending on the chosen component, the way of preparing the drug and the rules for its use will change. But they are all aimed at removing toxins from the body, delaying the growth of tumors.
Before using any of the folk remedies, you need to get permission from your doctor!
How many live such patients?
Unfortunately, patients with intestinal cancer of the last degree are difficult to give favorable predictions. As statistics show, only 6% of people suffering from this disease live 5 years or more. The rest die after a period of several months to 3 years. In this case, the degree of survival is significantly affected by several factors:
- age of the patient;
- tumor size;
- degree of spread of metastases;
- the state of immunity of the patient;
- presence or absence of chronic diseases.
How to prolong life in bowel cancer 4 stages?
For the maximum possible prolongation of the patient's life, various methods of treatment are used. But do not dwell on this alone! For example, to improve overall health and prolong life really with the help of a special diet. In the diet of the patient it is necessary to include as much vegetables and other foods rich in fiber. In this case, it is necessary to minimize the amount of animal fats consumed.
Bowel cancer (stage 4 in particular) is an intractable disease. Therefore, those who want to protect themselves from it should take the necessary preventive measures. It will not be superfluous to undergo periodic examinations (ultrasound, feces analysis), which will help to identify the ailment at the stage of origin and begin timely treatment.
Bowel cancer after surgery
This article will tell you what kind of lifestyle cancer patients should take to ensure that bowel cancer after surgery does not recur and resume with renewed vigor. And also will be given advice on proper nutrition: what should the patient do during the rehabilitation period, and what complications can occur if one does not adhere to the recommendations prescribed by the doctor?
Complications and possible consequences
Operation of intestinal cancer is risky and dangerous, as are other surgical interventions of this complexity. The first signs, which are considered as precursors of postoperative complications, are called by physicians the flow of blood into the cavity of the peritoneum; as well as problems with wound healing or infectious diseases.
After surgical removal of the intestinal tumor, there are other complications:
Insufficient anastomosis :
Anastomosis is the attachment of two anatomical segments to each other. If the anastomosis stitches are insufficient, the two ends of the intestine sewn together can soften or tear. As a consequence, intestinal contents will enter the cavity of the peritoneum and cause peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum).
Disturbance of digestion :
Most patients after surgery complain about a worsening of the process of eating. They often receive complaints about flatulence and frustration of defecation. Because of this, patients have to change the usual diet, making it more monotonous.
Most often spikes do not bother the patient, but because of the impaired motor activity of the muscles of the intestine and its poor patency, they can cause sensations of pain and be dangerous to health.
What should include rehabilitation after surgery for bowel cancer?
In the intensive care unit a person returns from anesthesia to a normal state. The patient after the operation is prescribed analgesics for the removal of discomfort and pain in the abdominal cavity. The doctor may prescribe an injection anesthetic (epidural or spinal). For this, with the help of droppers in their body, drugs that relieve pain are injected. In the area of the operating wound, a special drainage is placed, which is necessary for the outflow of accumulated excess liquid, and after a couple of days it is removed.
Without the help of medical personnel, patients are allowed to take food several days after the operation. In the diet should necessarily include liquid cereal and well-rubbed soups. Only a week later the patient is allowed to move around the hospital. To the intestines heal, patients are recommended to wear a special bandage, which is needed to reduce the load on the abdominal muscles. In addition, the bandage makes it possible to provide equal throughout the area pressure in the abdominal cavity, and it promotes rapid and effective healing of the sutures after the operation.
For rehabilitation to be successful, patients after the intervention are prescribed a special diet, which they must adhere to.There is no clearly defined diet for cancer patients, and it depends only on the patient's preferences. But, in any case, your diet should be made with your doctor or dietician.
If during the operation the patient was withdrawn stoma (artificial hole), then in the first days it will look swollen. But already during the first two weeks the stoma is shortened and decreases in size.
If the patient's condition has not worsened, ─ in the hospital hospital, he lies no more than 7 days. Stitches or clips, which the surgeon imposed on the wound hole, are removed after 10 days.
Nutrition after bowel cancer surgery
About the diet after surgical treatment of oncology of the intestine, we can say that patients can adhere to the habitual nutrition for them. But with symptoms of digestive disorders (belching, indigestion, constipation) it is recommended to correct the violation of stool regulation, which is very important for patients with an artificial anus.
If, after surgery, you have been tortured by a frequent loose stool, doctors advise eating foods that are low in fiber. Gradually, the old diet is restored to the patient, and the menu introduces food, which used to cause problems in the work of the body. To restore the diet should go to a consultation with a dietician.
Recommendations for food intake during the postoperative period:
- Food should be consumed in small portions five times a day.
- Drink plenty of fluid between acts of eating.
- During the meal, you should not hurry, you need to chew the food well.
- Eat moderate temperatures (not too cold and not too hot).
- Achieve systematic, and regularity in eating.
- Patients whose weight is rejected from the norm, doctors are advised to use food in full. Patients with a weight below the normal, it is recommended to eat a little more, and those suffering from excess weight ─ slightly less.
- Food should be steamed, boiled or cooked.
- Should be abandoned products causing bloating (flatulence); as well as from sharp or roasted dishes, if you carry them with difficulty.
- Avoid the use of foods that are intolerant.
Life after surgery (general recommendations)
The main question that worries people after discharge from the hospital is whether they will be able to work after the operation. After prompt treatment of the oncology of the intestine, the working capacity of patients depends on many factors: the stage of tumor development, such as oncology, as well as the profession of patients. After cardinal operations, for a couple of years, patients are not considered capable of labor. But, if the relapse has not occurred, they can return to the old job (it's not about physically hard occupations).
It is especially important to restore the consequences of a surgical operation, which lead to improper operation of the intestine (processes of inflammation in the area of the artificial anus, a decrease in the diameter of the intestine, inflammation of the colon, incontinence of feces, etc.).
If the treatment is successful, the patient should undergo regular examinations for 2 years: to take a general analysis of stool and blood; regular examination of the colon surface (colonoscopy); X-ray of chest organs. If the recurrence does not occur, the diagnosis should be carried out at least once every 5 years.
Patients who are fully cured are not restricted in any way, but they are advised not to engage in heavy physical work for six months after discharge from the hospital.
The chance of relapse, after the removal of benign tumors, is extremely small, sometimes they arise due to non-radical surgery. After two years of therapy indicate the origin of the progress of tumor growth (metastasis or relapse) is very difficult.Neoplasm, which appeared again, qualifies as a relapse. Treat relapses of malignant tumors more often conservative methods, while using antitumor drugs and radiation therapy.
The main prevention of tumor recurrence is early diagnostics and topical operative intervention in local oncology, as well as full compliance with the norms of ablastics .
Certain advice on secondary prevention of recurrence of this oncology is not available.But doctors still advise to follow the same rules as in the case of primary prevention:
- Constantly be in motion, that is, lead an active lifestyle.
- Reduce alcohol consumption to a minimum.
- Quit smoking (if this habit is bad).
- It is worth to lose weight (if you have extra weight).
During the recovery period in order to avoid the resumption of cancer, it is necessary to carry out a special gymnastic gymnastics, which will strengthen the muscles of the intestine.