Description of breast cancer in women
In the world oncological practice, the term "sternum" refers to the area of the chest that includes bone structures, lungs and the mammary gland.
Malignant neoplasms of this localization are predominantly primary.An exception is the tumor of the chest bone, which is often the result of the growth of oncology or metastases from other organs and systems.
Causes of breast cancer in women
The key cause of oncogenesis of the thorax in women is unknown. Doctors indicate the existence of the following risk factors:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Congenital pathology.
- The effects of carcinogenic substances that are contained in tobacco smoke, food products and asparagus asparagus.
- High doses of radiological radiation during radiation therapy.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions of residence and work.
- Age and sex. For example, breast cancer in most cases is formed in women, and lung carcinoma is predominantly diagnosed in males over 40 years of age.
A common symptom of cancers of the thoracic region is the formation of a limited swelling of the soft tissues, which is accompanied by attacks of sharp pain. Pain syndrome tends to increase, intensity and duration of attacks.
For breast tumors, there are symptoms:
- the formation of nodes and seals in the chest;
- bloody or mucous discharge from the nipple;
- presence of bleeding ulcers.
Cancers of lung tissue are characterized by the following clinical picture:
- frequent bouts of dry cough;
- presence of blood masses in sputum;
- chronic subfebrile body temperature;
- progressive dyspnea;
- pain in the chest.
Oncology of the osseous system, unfortunately, is visually manifested only at a late stage. In such cases, cancer patients complain of atypical bone compaction and intense pain.
At the terminal phase, malignant neoplasms of the sternum include symptoms of cancer intoxication :
- general malaise and loss of efficiency;
- a sharp decrease in appetite and body weight;
- fast fatigue and persistent pain syndrome.
How is the diagnosis of breast cancer in women?
The definition of an oncological diagnosis begins with the clarification of the patient's complaints and the clarification of the anamnesis. The history of the disease consists of the identification of family predisposition, concomitant somatic pathology, the time of onset and the nature of the primary symptomatology of the disease. Subsequently, the doctor performs a visual examination of the affected area of the body and palpates the regional lymph nodes.
Important things to know: Symptoms of sternal cancer
The final diagnosis of breast cancer in women is anticipated by the following procedures:
Radiography and mammography of the chest :
This technique allows you to detect a tumor and estimate its size.
UZD diagnostics :
It is mainly used for pathologies of soft tissues.
Computer and magnetic resonance imaging :
Digital processing of the radiographic image increases the detail, and layer-by-layer scanning increases the accuracy of the study.
Survey of the mucous membrane surface of the respiratory system is indicated for suspected carcinoma of the lungs.
This is the most effective method of diagnosis, which serves as a key tool in establishing a definitive diagnosis. Histological and cytological analyzes of a small part of oncogenesis determine the stage, spread and type of cancer lesion.
Calculation of concentration of oncomarkers :
The study of the level of biologically active substances allows you to suspect an oncology at an early stage, and also in the case of confirmation of the diagnosis, oncomarkers contribute to monitoring the effectiveness of anticancer therapy.
Modern treatment of breast cancer in women
Radical intervention is considered to be an optimal way to treat a cancerous tumor of this area. The volume of surgical manipulation predetermines the size and location of the neoplasm. For example, a breast tumor predominantly lends itself to a complete resection, in which the entire breast gland is subject to removal. Patients with carcinoma of the lung can be recommended by doctors for excision of one lobe or one lung.
Along with surgery, cancer patients undergo chemotherapy, in which the dose and duration of antitumor drugs are calculated individually for each clinical case. Cytotoxic agents have a systemic effect on the human body, causing the death of mutated cells.Chemotherapy is prescribed as an independent method, and as an addition to surgical intervention. Such treatment in the preoperative period stabilizes the oncological process. After resection of the pathological focus, cytotoxic drugs can prevent therecurrence of cancer .
Inoperable tumors and oncology of the late stage are subjected to symptomatic therapy and radiation exposure. Radiotherapy has a disastrous effect on mutated cells.
Innovative methods for the removal of breast cancer include:
Antineoplastic agents are delivered directly to the mutation zone. These can be specially modified antibodies or particles of a radioactive substance.
Numerous modern studies indicate an important role of the state of the protective abilities of the patient's body.
Balancing the hormonal background has a beneficial effect on the course of the oncological process, which is especially important in breast cancer.
Photo - breast cancer in women indicates the need for early diagnosis, because only timely provision of cancer care increases the prognosis and chances of survival of the patient.
Breast Cancer Hormone Therapy
Breast cancer hormone therapy is effective if cancer cells are sensitive to hormones. For this, an immunohistochemical examination is performed. Using a biopsy, a particle of the affected tissue is taken to determine the amount of hormonal receptors. The detection of estrogen and progestin-positive confirms the presence of cancer cells that have ceased to divide. For their dying off and hormone therapy is applied. This method of treatment has a systemic effect on the body, in some cases is used as a priority treatment for breast cancer in women.
Therapy is prescribed:
- In order to eliminate the remaining pathological segments after surgery and irradiation.
- Before surgery to reduce the size of the original focus.
- To prevent the appearance of pathology in another mammary gland, reduce pain.
- As part of a combined treatment for relapse or a locally advanced form of the disease.
- Women at risk of hereditary predisposition.
Types of hormone therapy
Depending on the type of hormonal and anti-hormonal drugs, they block and prevent the development of tumor cells, are designed to stop or enhance the production of female sex hormones. In medicine, 2 types of hormonal therapy are used:
- Prophylactic ( adjuvant ).
Indications for hormone therapy:
- presence of metastases;
- compaction after surgery;
- large tumor size;
- growth of the tumor in the absence of an increase in the growth of cancer cells.
What drugs are used?
Depending on the ovarian cycle (the presence of menstruation, menopause or postmenopause), the procedure and treatment scheme varies.
- Aromatase blockers are prescribed at an early and late stage of the disease at any time after the removal of the breast tumor . The effect is observed in patients in postmenopausal women.The drug interferes with the production of estrogen by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, prevents the growth and division of tumor cells.
- "Tamoxifen", "Raloxifene" or "Toremifene" is prescribed to women of any age at all stages of the disease before and after the operation. The drug prevents the entry of estrogen to cancer cells. Long-term treatment reduces the possibility of recurrence of pathology and neoplasms.
- "Faslodex" is assigned when the first two methods were not effective. The drug, connecting with the receptors of estrogen, blocks their development. As a result, tumor cells do not grow.
- Effects on the ovaries medically, with the help of surgical intervention (ovariectomy) or irradiation with radiation.
This type of treatment for breast cancer is used regularly from 2 to 5 years (sometimes treatment is more than 5 years). The treatment regimens are developed individually for each patient, based on the clinical picture, the severity of the disease, the overall health status, and the stage of tumor development. In young patients, menopause less than 10 years and with menopause, hormone therapy begins one week after the end of the postoperative period (after ovariectomy). Treatment takes place for 5 years. For the purpose of prevention, it is recommended to carry out therapy for three years.
Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer of the 4th stage
As a rule, metastatic cancer occurs 3-5 years later in the place of a tumor or in nearby tissues. Cancer of the 4th stage of the breast extends to the lymph nodes and peritoneum, the adrenal and ovaries, the lungs and the liver. More often localization of remote sites - bones (vertebrae, pelvis, humerus and femur and joints).
If the recurrent nodules are small enough excision. Multiple metastases are treated in a complex way: medicamentous and chemotherapy, hormone therapy, palliative surgery, targeted and palliative therapy. With small metastases in the lymph nodes after mastectomy (surgical intervention to remove the mammary glands), hormone therapy is considered as the main treatment measure. The reason for this - the process of dissemination, in which tumor cells spread in the body through the circulatory and / or lymphatic system.
Complications of this treatment for women
In each patient, the effects of hormone therapy are manifested in different ways (based on the prescribed treatment regimen, the onset of menopause and the state of the body). The symptoms of side effects during therapy vary. A common complication is stopping the menstrual cycle (a temporary or permanent phenomenon). If the age of menopause is approaching (51-52 years), with the treatment with hormones, an early manifestation is possible.
If MC before the treatment was normal, it will recover after the end of therapy. In cancer with metastases, effective treatment with hormone therapy is manifested by sudden burning sensations. Anesthetics help to cope with the side effect.
In addition, fatigue, sweating and hot flashes may occur. Low doses of antidepressants help cope with the problem.
Disturbance of the digestive tract (nausea, constipation or diarrhea), absence or increase in appetite, weight gain is found in 10% of women. If within 6 months of taking hormonal medications the patient does not gain weight, most likely there will be no weight gain. Nausea and vomiting occur after 2-3 weeks, to eliminate such side effects, antiemetic drugs are prescribed.
With depression, sharp mood swings the patient struggles with the help of psychotherapy and medications for soothing.
With timely consultation with the attending physician, recommendations are given for eliminating the consequences for improving the condition.
Symptoms of breast cancer
In the world there are many common cancers that affect the female body.One of them is a malignant lesion of the breast. It accounts for 16% of the total number of oncology. In 22.9% of cases, an invasive (widespread) form occurs. And 18.2% of all deaths are caused precisely by this cancer.Therefore, you need to know what breast cancer looks like, the symptoms, photos and description of which will be described and described below.
The most common and accurate manifestations of breast cancer
Sealing, lump in iron
The first sign of breast cancer for many women is precisely the sensation of a lump. But in 9 out of 10 cases (90%), after careful diagnosis, the compaction proves to be benign.However, in any case, when an unusual condition of the organ is detected, it is necessary to consult a mammologian doctor.Swelling and swelling in the thoracic or axillary tissue
This condition can be a consequence of hormonal changes. But if the thickening persists for a long period of time, this should cause the woman to worry. Life-threatening factors for edema include:
- possible presence of a cyst;
- a problem in the duct or in the lobes of the breast;
- swelling in the armpit at the site of the lymph nodes often indicates the struggle of the organism with the invasion of extraneous bacteria or viruses.
Changing the size and shape of a mature breast
If the mammary gland of an adult woman changes its parameters, then it can signal that the milk ducts or lobules in the depth of the tissue have swelling. Of particular concern is the change in only one breast. Possible non-malignant causes are caused by:
- Fibro-cystic changes.
- Monthly menstrual cycle.
A basic mammogram will help accurately track changes.
Leaking fluid and blood (not milk) from the nipple
This circumstance often occurs at the age of 21-48 years due to strong hormonal influence and is not a disease. However, if the fluid flows from only one nipple or has bloody impurities, you should immediately go through medical testing to determine the exact diagnosis.
Change in color, shape, texture of the nipple or areola of the breast
Factors such as dimples, rashes, roughness or the presence of wrinkled skin for a long period require specialist advice. Especially it is necessary to pay attention to conditions of a skin condition which do not give in to local treatment by creams. This may be a symptom of breast cancer (photo).
One of the unusual types of breast cancer is known as Paget's disease. It begins to appear in the form of a scaly rash.
Other changes are characterized by:
- increased temperature in this area;
- the presence of a skin texture like an orange peel with a red tint;
- irregularities, itching, burning around the nipple.
The allocation of the area of the chest or armpits in the overall well-being of a woman due to the manifestation of any signs of discomfort:
- presence of a marble shade;
- convexity and / or discoloration of the skin;
- periodic tingling, coarsening, etc.
Unusual pain in the chest or armpit. Pay attention to the discomfort that occurs outside the cycle and only on one side.
Regardless of the cause, any change in the condition of the mammary glands requires a call to specialists.
How to recognize breast cancer?
Do not always expect any symptoms. Conducting a regular survey will help to protect yourself from the disease or detect it in the early stages. Therefore, women at different ages are recommended:
- Regularly conduct self-examination of the breast, which consists in a thorough examination of the organ with your fingers. In this case, one raised hand is placed behind the head, the other is probed by the organ.
- Women from 20 to 30 years are advised to regularly undergo a general clinical examination, and also once every two to three years to do mammograms.
- Women after 40 years of age adhere to the rules of mammography.
Symptoms and diagnostic tests needed by every woman
Any condition of the mammary glands, which disturbs the woman and causes a suspicion of cancer , should be stipulated and checked by a specialist.Sometimes the doctor asks to come to the examination in a few weeks to analyze the dynamics, depending on the changes in the hormonal background.
Early detection of cancer and tests for detecting symptoms of breast cancer include:
- Clinical examination of the glands, which is an important tool for detecting changes.
- Women under 35 years are recommended to do ultrasound, rather than mammography, to avoid radiation. The device is able to show the presence of a lump and its features. Also, ultrasound distinguishes benign neoplasms in womenfrom malignant.
- Mammography. It is indicated in order to determine the cancer in the early stages even before the sensation of certain symptoms.
- If necessary, a tissue biopsy is done to study under a microscope. It involves different ways:
- use of a thin needle and syringe to collect cell samples from a suspected tumor;
- pivotal, which makes it possible to recognize the exact form of the oncological disease, and also to determine the stage and reaction to hormones;
- vacuum is carried out with a small cut;
- invasive methods that suggest surgical excision of the affected tissue.
In many cases, a woman can independently recognize breast cancer. Symptoms and photos of the disease can provide early diagnosis. However, all exciting issues must be discussed with the doctor.