How to stop metastases?
Malignant tumor itself is a huge harm to human health, not only disrupting the functioning of the organ, where the primary focus is located, but also affecting distant structures through the spread of metastases. How to stop metastases ? Is it possible to prevent their reproduction? This will be discussed below.
How correctly to treat metastases?
The key to the successful treatment of metastases is the timely diagnosis of the oncological process, treatment tactics based on the morphological features of the tumor, its aggressiveness, size, damage to surrounding structures, as well as the presence of concomitant pathology and the general state of human health.
Previously, when metastasis was detected, it was believed that this stage did not respond to treatment. Therapy was aimed only at improving the quality of life through the use of symptomatic effects, for example, the use of painkillers in oncology of the 4th stage , which reduce the manifestations of organ dysfunction.
Correct medical tactics should include:
- Chemotherapy, which is the most common technique in the fight against metastases and cancer cells of the primary focus. There is an opportunity to individually select a course and preparations.
- Hormonotherapy is rational provided that the hormone dependence of the tumor is present. In this case, blockers of this hormone are used. The most effective treatment for prostate or mammary gland cancer .
- Surgical intervention with metastases is quite rare, since it is sometimes almost impossible to remove all the outbreak centers. The operation is performed with convenient localization of metastases.
- Irradiation is recommended for the purpose of suppressing the growth of the neoplasm.
- Laser resection.
The best effect is observed when several treatment methods are used simultaneously.
How to stop the growth of metastases?
It is not always possible to detect a malignant disease without metastases. This is due to the absence of severe symptoms at the initial stage, so a person consults a doctor at later stages when clinical signs appear.
The spread of foci of screening depends on both the characteristics of the tumor process and the general condition of the patient.
Metastases can spread to the lungs, the brain, kidneys, bones, lymph nodes and the digestive tract. Depending on their location, the symptoms start to worry. The prognosis for life also depends on this.
Is it possible to improve survival rate, and how to stop the growth of metastases ?These are the main issues that concern oncology patients.
The surgical effect on the oncological process can be conditionally divided into several varieties:
- radical method, when complete removal of the primary focus and regional lymph nodes is performed;
- conditional-radical, in which radiation and chemotherapy are additionally used;
- palliative if other methods are ineffective or can not be applied. It is aimed at maintaining the quality of life.
Treatment by a radical method is impossible when the tumor conglomerate is inoperable (located in a hard-to-reach place or affects vital structures), decompensation of respiratory or cardiovascular systems is observed.
In this case, radiation therapy is used. It allows you to reduce the inoperable focus in size and reduce the likelihood of spreading metastases. In addition, chemotherapy medications administered intravenously or intra-arterially are prescribed. Practically there is no therapeutic effect from "chemistry" with metastases in bone structures, brain or liver.
With the palliative technique, treatment is aimed at eliminating the clinical symptoms of the disease by prescribing analgesic medications. Psychotherapy sessions are conducted, detoxification therapy is conducted, and if necessary, certain types of surgical intervention (nephro-, gastrostomy) are performed.
Can I stop metastases with chemotherapy?
Today, irradiation and chemotherapy are the main methods for preventing the spread of metastases and inhibiting their growth. Of course, treatment in the presence of foci of excision is much more difficult, but modern approaches can prolong life and improve the quality of life.
The disadvantage of these therapeutic methods is the damage to healthy cells, as the precise delivery of chemotherapy is not always possible. In addition, there follows a long recovery after chemotherapy , as the drugs are quite toxic and lead to suppression of the immune response, the appearance of dyspeptic disorders, exacerbation of chronic pathology and deterioration of overall well-being.
There are several types of chemotherapy:
- Non-adjuvant, when drugs are administered immediately before surgery to reduce tumor volume. In addition, a pharmacological response of cancer cells to drugs is established.
- Adjuvant , in which "chemistry" is used after surgery to reduce the risk of re-development of malignant disease and prevent metastasis.
- Therapeutic - to reduce the size and number of metastases.
For each site and stage of malignant disease, chemotherapy and radiation regimens have been developed. However, in each case, some changes are possible, since it is necessary to take into account the state of the patient's overall health.
Also, it is necessary to take into account how a person transfers the course of "chemistry", because besides combating malignant cells and structures, one should not forget about the concomitant pathology. With incorrectly selected therapy, there may be significant side effects.
To prevent the spread of cancer cells, it is necessary to diagnose the pathological process in a timely manner, paying attention to the emerging clinical signs. However, if a stage was detected with foci of screening, do not get upset, as to stop metastases ispossible with the help of developed schemes of modern treatment. The main thing is to get into the hands of a competent doctor!
How to recognize metastases of melanoma?
"Melanoma" - this diagnosis increasingly sounds from the lips of oncologists. The disease is a malignant tumor, which is characterized by aggressive development. The most dangerous in this situation are metastases of melanoma , because of which the pathological process is an almost incurable disease.
No wonder it says that the enemy should know in person, and after all melanoma is the most terrible enemy. Many people perceive this disease as a sentence, but is it really so? And in general - is it real to cure ailment?
What is melanoma?
This is a kind of skin cancer . The disease occurs in people of absolutely any age. What happens in this case in the human body?Inside the human body there are pigments such as melanin, which is responsible for coloring the skin and protects it from the aggressive effects of ultraviolet radiation. This pigment produces cells called melanocytes. As a result of the degeneration of melanocytes, this malignant tumor appears.
Melanoma specialists consider the most dangerous of all tumors of the skin. This is due to its rapid growth, as well as its propensity for rapid formation of metastases in the lymph nodes and internal organs.
People who abuse staying in direct sunlight, and also like to often go to a solarium, the probability of "earning" melanoma increases dramatically. What does this have to do with the disease? Direct! Excessive dose of ultraviolet leads to increased production of melanin, as a result of which their growth and further degeneration into a malignant form occurs.
The genetic predisposition and the hormonal background in the body also have significance.It is better not to start the process until metastasis of melanoma, but pay attention to the first signs of the disease, namely:
- a new birthmark is growing rapidly or the old one, which has been unchanged until now, begins to increase;
- the neoplasm has fuzzy edges or the contour line of the old formation has changed;
- color change.
What is dangerous for this disease?
Metastasis of melanoma is the main danger!In just a couple of months or even weeks, they can hit vital organs, including: lungs, stomach, liver and others.
Metastases of a cancerous tumor are characterized by rapid and early development. In the first place, the most closely affected are the nearby lymph nodes and skin.
The risk of the spread of atypical cells is explained by the following:
- Metastasis most often occurs when the body simply does not have the strength to fight the disease;
- the spread of cancer cells interferes with the normal functioning of organs and systems;
- there are strong pain sensations that disturb the general condition of the patient;
- the risk of a lethal outcome increases at times.
The first signs of melanoma metastasis
The clinical manifestations of metastasis of melanoma differ depending on the location of their localization. For example, if the lesion is the abdominal cavity, then ascitesdevelops, that is, a large amount of fluid begins to accumulate.
If the bones are affected, then severe pains occur in the body and the propensity to fractures increases.
When the cancer cells are spreading to the liver, jaundice , pain in the right hypochondrium, weight loss, and the like appear in the patients.
The main problem is that most of the metastases remain insensitive to chemotherapy, so in this case, the emphasis in treatment is on alleviating the symptoms and maximizing the quality of life of a person.
Is it possible to cure metastases of melanoma and what treatment is customary for today?
Treatment of the disease at the initial stages has a favorable prognosis, but the conversation is completely different with the stages started.
If the process of tumor spread has affected the lymph nodes, in addition to the fact that the primary tumor is removed, regional lymph nodes are also cut out. The probability that cancer cells have spread in them is quite high, so doctors do not take risks, but carry out a resection.
If the metastases penetrated the internal organs, the predictions are extremely unfavorable. In the event that it is possible to perform a surgical intervention, while not compromising the quality of life of the patient, then it is carried out. Thanks to the work of surgeons, the disease can be taken under control, as well as lengthen the life of the cancer patient.
In addition to surgical intervention, specialists apply other methods of treatment, among which are the following:
- radiation therapy;
- chemotherapy ;
- radiosurgical method.
The tactics of treatment for the spread of a tumor are influenced by the following factors:
- number of metastases;
- how quickly they spread;
- the effectiveness of previous treatment;
- general health of the patient;
- the patient's desire to fight the disease.
Summing up, we can draw the following conclusions: melanoma is a serious disease that should not be feared, but with which it is necessary to fight! Do not wait formetastases of melanoma to appear, react already at the first signs of ailment! Ask for qualified help from experienced professionals, and be healthy!
The process of metastasizing a malignant tumor occurs by spreading cancer cells through the blood and lymph vessels from the primary focus to the surrounding and remote organs.Crookenberg's metastases are a collection of altered (malignant) cells that "settle" in the ovaries (in women) and form a secondary tumor.
Of all oncology, this type of ovarian failure is registered in 14% of cases. He is in third place after the epithelial and embryonic form of cancer of the female gonads.
The danger of a secondary tumor of the female gonads lies in the progression of the initial malignant formation. In this regard, the condition of a person is significantly deteriorating, and laboratory blood counts are decreasing.It should be noted that cancer intoxication contributes to a decrease in body weight, appetite, the appearance of severe weakness and increased temperature.
In the case of the disintegration of the tumor conglomerate, bleeding may occur, and large neoplasms squeeze the surrounding organs, disrupting their functioning. So, it is observed:
- dysuria (frequent urge, incomplete emptying of the bladder, pain when urinating);
- intestinal dysfunction (prolonged constipation);
- ascites (with peritoneal injury). The volume of fluid in the abdominal cavity is about 5-10 liters.
Also, you need to focus on the risk of further spread of altered cells with damage to bone structures, lymph nodes, kidneys.
In most cases, secondary damage to the ovaries is observed in women with stomach cancer . Also, the initial neoplasm can be localized in other organs of the digestive tract and the mammary glands.Distribution of malignant cells occurs lymphogenous and hematogenous. In the first case, metastases are transferred to the lymphatic vessels, settling in the lymph nodes. In the second - on the blood vessels, hitting distant structures.
Causes of development
Progression of the disease occurs quickly, since the tumor is distinguished by its aggressiveness.The tumor of Crookenberg covers both ovaries. The cause of their oncotransformation is the transfer of cells that have been malignant, from the original formation.
In most cases, initially the digestive tract, in particular the stomach, is affected, as a result of which the cancer spreads to the female reproductive glands.
The severity of symptoms depends on the age of the person, the presence of concomitant pathology and the type of transformed tissues in the primary neoplasm.
How to recognize Crookenberg metastases?
The initial symptomatology of lesions of the female sex glands is sometimes "covered" by signs of the underlying disease, as a result of which the diagnosis of ovarian cancer is removed.
Symptomokompleks observed during the progression of the disease, when onkoobrazovanie reaches large sizes. In some cases, the manifestations of the disease are provoked by the onset of menopause.
In order to timely detect a secondary cancerous foci in the ovaries, it is necessary to undergo a regular examination if there is any primary local cancer oncology.
The first signs are pain syndrome with sexual intimacy, the appearance of nausea, swelling and discomfort in the lower abdomen.
Symptoms of a Crucenberg tumor
The severity of symptoms depends on the size of the tumor and the damage to surrounding organs. Thus, it is noted:
- discomfort in the lower abdomen;
- pain at intimacy, at rest;
- frequent urination;
- decreased body weight;
- temperature increase;
- abundant discharge with monthly and ointment outside the cycle;
- lack of appetite;
- accumulation of ascitic fluid in the abdominal cavity when the peritoneum is affected.
In addition, do not forget about the clinical manifestations of primary cancer.
Sometimes the primary cancer of the stomach is diagnosed after the detection of metastases in the ovaries. With diagnostic purpose, a gynecological examination in the mirrors, bimanual examination and cytological analysis of smears are prescribed.
When rectal palpation, the surrounding tissue is examined for oncology. From instrumental techniques, ultrasound is used to visualize metastases, assess their size, consistency and damage to surrounding organs.
For the analysis of blood flow in the ovaries, a Doppler study is used. Also, tomography is assigned, and diagnostic laparoscopy is performed to confirm the diagnosis, with excision of the material for histological analysis. The latter confirms the malignant structure of the tissues and the presence of cancer.
From laboratory methods, search for oncomarkers , especially CA-125, is used.
The tactics of treatment are based on surgical removal of primary and secondary tumors with subsequent chemotherapy. With inoperable cancer, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy is possible, as well as analgesia with strong analgesics to improve the quality of life of the patient.
Prognosis and survival
Diagnosis of metastasis in the female sex gland worsens the life expectancy, as it indicates the progression of the primary cancer and reaching stage 3 or stage 4.
In most cases, a lethal outcome occurs in the first few years after the discovery of the metastases of Crookenberg. During the first year the lethality reaches 95%, and by the end of the 5th year the number of surviving patients does not exceed 1%.
To prevent Croukenberg metastases is possible by regular examination of patients with localization of malignant disease in organs that most often give secondary tumors to the ovaries (stomach, mammary glands, etc.).