Prevention of breast cancer
Breast cancer in women can occur at any age, which is why it is so important to know the measures of primary and secondary prevention. Prevention of breast cancer will help prevent dangerous consequences and save the life of the patient.
What is the risk of breast cancer for the health and life of a woman?
The following can be attributed to the consequences of this cancer:
- Accession to a malignant tumor is an inflammatory process that complicates the course of the disease.
- When a metastasis occurs - inflammatory processes in the respiratory organs, violations of the liver, bone fractures (depending on the localization of metastases).
- Surgical removal of the breast inevitably brings a psychological shock to a woman.That is why the oncologist issues a special prosthesis, which must be worn for several months. After a while, a full-fledged surgical plastic and restoration of the lost breast can be done.
- After removal of the lymph nodes, limb mobility may be limited (for this, a set of exercises is provided).
- Chemotherapy for breast cancer gives its complications - strengthening the venous pattern on the chest and extremities, hair loss, brittle nails (in some cases, the nail plates completely separate from the skin, which contributes to the development of bacterial or fungal diseases).
Thus, the consequences of breast cancer and its treatment by radical surgical and medicamental methods are quite severe. That's why the disease is easier to prevent.
Primary prevention of breast cancer
Primary preventive measures a woman can take regularly, without leaving home. The goal of primary preventive actions is to prevent the appearance of pathology, to eliminate as many as possible the various adverse effects on the woman's body. Such prevention depends on the social characteristics of the patient's life.
Primary prevention of breast cancer is as follows:
Statistics show that the percentage of cancer patients is significantly lower among women who have given birth to a child before the age of thirty. Absence of abortions and competent planning of pregnancy is the basis of primary preventive measures.
Minimize the impact of carcinogenic factors
A woman needs regular walks in the open air, refusal from alcohol and smoking. In conditions of poor ecology, it is necessary to visit the city as often as possible, to have a rest in sanatoriums. Persons with hereditary predisposition to oncology should preferably not work in harmful industrial conditions.
A well-designed diet also plays an important role in prevention. The limited consumption of fatty and fried foods, fast food, sufficient consumption of foods rich in protein, vitamins and minerals will allow you not only to prevent breast cancer, but also to feel much better, to normalize weight.
The food that we eat in modern times, entails the formation of cancer in both men and women. Be sure to monitor the calorie content of foods, it should not exceed the allowable rate, depending on your type of activity and physical activity. In addition to the exclusion of spicy, fried and fatty foods, products with synthetic additives, you must create your own healthy menu. It is based on the following provisions:
- Caloric content of protein food should be about 20% of all eaten per day.
- 60% of your food should take complex carbohydrates.
- Useful fats - 20% (we are talking about vegetable oils).
- Eat enough fresh fruits and vegetables, because they contain a large supply of vitamins to maintain the normal functioning of the immune system.
- Your daily diet should consist, in particular, of cereals and legumes.
- Regularly eat seafood, garlic, celery.
If you carry out an independent palpation in time, you can thoroughly examine your own breasts and notice negative changes in time. If you find cavities, tenderness, and even small lumps, you should immediately contact a mammologist. To conduct a home diagnosis of breast cancer is recommended after the completion of another menstruation, the examination is carried out in a circular motion.
Note that this disease can develop even in adolescence, so the child also needs to explain the measures for primary prevention.
Secondary prevention of breast cancer
Secondary preventive measures are aimed at the timely detection of neoplasms and their signs, which makes it possible to minimize the mortality rate.
A key feature of secondary prevention is the conduct of various diagnostic examinations, as well as the detection of malignant cells before the emergence of characteristic symptoms. There are several effective surveys.
The most effective screening test is a mammogram. Such a procedure makes it possible to determine the presence of a neoplasm at the early stages of its formation.Women who have reached the age of 45 years, need to do mammography every year.As for young girls, this procedure is indicated to them when they suspect the presence of malignant cells in the body.
Ultrasound of the breast is another common method of examination. Such diagnostics makes it possible to detect neoplasm with a size of three millimeters. Especially actual regular ultrasound examination for those who take birth control hormonal medication. In this case, the gynecologist on the preventive examination necessarily directs the woman to the examination of the mammary glands. The main advantage of the ultrasound method lies in the possibility of its repeated execution, since it is completely safe and can be administered to a patient of any age.
At the first detection of a malignant neoplasm specialists immediately prescribe effective treatment. If cancer cells can be destroyed in the early stages with the help of chemotherapy, you can do without surgery.
Pay attention : women who regularly visit a specialist, undergo all examinations and take tests, have twice the chance to successfully defeat this dangerous pathology!
Thus, preventive measures are the main way to prevent breast cancer. Prevention of breast cancer is a complex exercise that includes both self-examination and the formation of a culture of a healthy lifestyle in general. In this case, such a culture should be laid down as early as in adolescence: it is important for parents to explain to the growing up girl how important it is to take care of one's health and what it takes to do it.
Prophylaxis of cancer. Protection plan for every day
A healthy lifestyle can not guarantee complete protection from oncology. But numerous medical studies indicate that cancer in people who follow the principles of healthy eating and doing sports, is recorded quite rarely.
A cancer prevention plan that works
The plan for the prevention of cancer and malignant neoplasms includes the following concepts:
- Rational nutrition and moderate physical activity :
American researchers of the society against cancer have found out that 30-40% of oncological diseases are related to the quality of nutrition. People with increased body weight and low physical activity increase the risk of developing cancer and the occurrence of malignant neoplasms. Prophylaxis of cancer also consists in refusing to drink strong alcoholic beverages, which, combined with tobacco, cause cancer damage to the mouth, throat and respiratory system.
Inclusion in the daily diet of plant foods (vegetables and fruits) can prevent cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.
The list of recommendations for rational nutrition and exercise includes the following items:
- Balancing the calorie content of food and the level of physical activity.
- Maintain an optimal body weight throughout life. Excessive weight plays a key role in the prevention of cancer, increasing susceptibility to oncology.
- Daily exercise for an adult should last at least 30 minutes, and for children 60 minutes.
- Regularly eat at least five types of vegetables and fruits.
- If possible, replace red meat with whole grain products.
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Night sleep is an integral part of cancer prevention. Insufficient rash causes disturbances in the hormonal balance, which ultimately provokes the development of malignant neoplasms. Scientists have proved that the effect of physical training with a lack of night sleep is reduced to zero.
- Refusal of smoking and alcohol :
Smoking of tobacco often leads to oncological diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems. A key role in the occurrence of lung cancer belongs precisely to this bad habit. It should be noted that passive smoking is also dangerous to health. In addition, it should be understood that the risk of developing a cancerous tumor is directly proportional to the amount of strong alcoholic beverages consumed.
According to statistics, in 20% of tumors the infection is caused by a virus. Viral hepatitis often precedes malignant liver damage. Papilloma virus is considered a scientifically valid cause, which causes cervical cancer . The bacterium " Helicobacter pylori " promotes the development of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, which is included in the group of risk factors of oncology.Prevention of cancer in such cases is to carry out vaccination and timely treatment of bacterial and viral infections.
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According to the World Health Organization, air, water and soil pollution is responsible for 1-5% of cancers. The effects of carcinogenic substances can occur by inhaling contaminated air or through food that grows in the ground with an increased content of pesticides and nitrates. Prevention of cancer is based on the use of cleaning equipment in all industries. Also, recent scientific studies have revealed high carcinogenic activity of air in rooms where coal was burnt.
- Harmful working conditions :
More than 50 chemical compounds and gaseous mixtures used in production can cause the development of malignant neoplasms. An example of such a carcinogenic effect is the formation of cancerous pleural lesions in people working in asbestos pairs.According to statistics, about 10% of all cancers of the broncho-pulmonary system are associated with industrial carcinogens. The most susceptible to these factors are people aged 15-60 years.
The carcinogenic effect of increased doses of ultraviolet radiation was studied on the basis of an analysis of the epidemiology of cutaneous forms of oncology. In terms of preventing skin cancer, it is advisable to use sunscreens and glasses. Currently, oncologists believe that artificial sunburn is an additional carcinogenic factor that can cause a rapid and aggressive degeneration of the birthmark into cancer .
Radiation ionizing radiation, as a rule, affects a person in the field of a radiological accident. The consequences of high activity X-rays are manifested by cancer processes of internal organs and systems. Ionizing radiation is most affected by people of younger age. The source of radiological waves can be radon, which is contained in some building materials. For the prevention of cancer specialists recommend to equip living and working areas with intake and exhaust ventilation, which contributes to the removal of gaseous radon. In medical practice, such studies as radiology and radiotherapy are associated with a tonic effect on the body, which requires an accurate calculation of the dosage and duration of the course of therapy.
Cancer virus (oncovirus) - types and prevention
Viruses are microscopic organisms, most of which can not be seen with a conventional microscope. They contain a small amount of DNA or RNA genes surrounded by a protein capsule. The vital activity of the viruses is directed at penetration into living cells, where the infection multiplies. In the process of division, some strains of viruses introduce their own DNA into the host cell, which in the future can trigger the development of the cancer process.
What is a cancer virus?
Cancer virus is a complex concept that includes:
- Infections that directly cause cancer .
- Viruses, whose action is directed to the development of chronic inflammatory processes.
Each oncovirus, as a rule, infects only a certain type of cells. Now in the scientific world, the amount of information about the role of viruses in the formation of tumor processes increases. Such knowledge help scientists develop cancer vaccines. But, unfortunately, universal vaccination can prevent the formation of several types of neoplasms before the virus enters the body.
Oncoviruses and their classification
The papilloma virus is more than 150 related viruses.The name of the pathology is explained by the fact that most of them cause the formation of papillomas in humans. Some types of HPV affect only the skin, and others - mucous membranes of the mouth, throat or reproductive organs in women.
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All types of papillomatous infection are transmitted through direct contact (touch). In more than 40 species of the virus, infection occurs through sexual contact. The majority of inhabitants of the earth are infected with a virus of a papilloma during an active sexual life. A dozen strains of this infection can cause cancer.
In most people, the activation of a viral lesion is controlled by the immune system.And only with a decrease in nonspecific resistance of the body there is a risk of malignant neoplasm formation.
What viruses cause cervical cancer ? For several decades, medical science has identified several types of papilloma viruses responsible for the onset of a cervical tumor.For many years, the world has been using special pop tests, which show precancerous changes in cervical cells. Thanks to such testing, it is possible to prevent the development of oncology in women by timely removal of mutated tissues.
The human papilloma virus also plays a role in the occurrence of certain cancers of the male sexual organ, vulva, anus.
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This type of herpes virus is known due to the provocation of mononucleosis. Disease can be transmitted by coughing, sneezing or sharing of cutlery.
Herpes viruses that cause cancer, after penetration into the body remain in it for life.The infection is concentrated in white blood cells (B-lymphocytes).
EBV infection of the body can lead to nasopharyngeal cancer, lymphomas and stomach cancer, and also cause cancer of the lips and mouth.
- Hepatitis B and C viruses :
These viral infections cause chronic destructive inflammation of the liver, which in the long term may undergo cancer degeneration.
Hepatitis viruses are transmitted through the sharing of needles, sexual intercourse or childbirth. Transmission of infection through blood transfusion in modern medical practice is practically absent due to testing of donor blood.
Model of the hepatitis virus
Of these two viruses, type B most likely causes the development of clinical symptoms in the form of influenza state or signs of jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In almost all cases, hepatitis B is amenable to complete cure.
For a person, the most dangerous is the hepatitis type C virus, which causes chronic inflammation of the liver tissue without external manifestations. This disease is extremely difficult to treat and may be asymptomatic for a long period. The chronic course of hepatitis C is considered a very serious risk factor for hepatic cancer.
After diagnosing the disease, the patient undergoes a specific treatment to slow the destructive processes in the liver and prevent the formation of malignant growth.
In medical practice, there is a vaccine for the prevention of viral hepatitis (only type B), it is recommended for all children and adults who are regularly at risk of infection.
- Human immunodeficiency virus :
Penetration into the body of HIV causes the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency, which does not directly cause cancer. But this disease increases the risk of cancer pathology by reducing the body's resistance.
Ways of transmission of HIV infection:
- Unprotected sex with an HIV-infected person.
- Injection or use of tools that have not been sterilized sufficiently.
- Prenatal (before birth) or perinatal (during childbirth) transmission of infection from mother to child.
- Breastfeeding mothers living with HIV.
- Transfusion of blood products containing the virus.
- Organ transplantation from HIV-infected donors.
- Accidents in medical institutions associated with accidental injury tool with a viral infection.
HIV infection most often provokes the emergence of Kaposi's Sarcoma and uterine cancer , as well as some types of lymphoid tumors.